We know firefighters are exposed to extreme temperatures in the line of duty, but how does that impact them physically and functionally? What can we do to help them recover more quickly after battling intense flames in 50 pounds of gear?
JoEllen Sefton, Ph.D., ATC, Associate Professor in the School of Kinesiology and director of the Warrior Research Center, along with Kenneth Games, Ph.D., ATC, Assistant Professor and director of the Tactical Athlete Research and Education Center at Indiana State University, hope to answer these questions with their research on 18 firefighters from the City of Auburn.
“We’re looking at whether exposure to heat, combined with exercise, is a problem functionally,” said Sefton. “It may affect balance, leading to increased risk of lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries, such as ankle sprains and ACL tears, which account for about 60 percent of injuries on the scene.”
In the study, the firefighters are in full gear consisting of 20 pounds of clothing and boots, plus a 30-pound air tank, and they exercise in an environmental chamber for 40 minutes. Each condition is completed on different visits to the Thermal and Infrared Imaging Lab in Kinesiology, run by David Pascoe, Ph.D. One condition involves walking at three miles per hour at a 2.5 percent incline at 122 degrees Fahrenheit (50 degrees Celsius). The other condition involves standing in 122 degrees Fahrenheit. On a subsequent day they walk three miles per hour at 2.5 percent incline at 64 degrees Fahrenheit (18 degrees Celsius) as a control measure.
“Being exposed to heat can lead to overexertion injuries and possible cardiac events,” he said. “By measuring core temperature, blood pressure, and other vital signs, we hope the data will help develop the best methods of rehabilitation after exposure. We’re always interested in making firefighters’ job safer and promoting health.”
Kenneth Games is Co-Principal Investigator on the project, and he is also a former Ph.D. student who studied under Sefton.
“We think heat plus work equals functional balance changes,” said Games. “We hope to develop interventions to improve the cooling protocols. With our research we can better determine if the physiological measures in the national guidelines are adequate for the safety of our firefighters.”
The study was jointly funded by Sefton’s Warrior Research Center and Indiana State University. Games’ Ph.D. student, Zach Winkelmann, is assisting with the project, as are graduate students from Auburn University, including Jeremy McAdam, Kaitlin McGinnis, Jess Nendez. Jordan Devine, a senior undergraduate Biomedical Sciences major, is also part of the research team.
The Auburn Fire Division has discussed various studies with the School of Kinesiology over the past three years. They are interested in assisting with relevant research. Battalion Chief William Dow Sport at the Auburn Fire Division has also been heavily involved in the project.
“We appreciate the collaboration between the City Fire Division and the School of Kinesiology,” said Lankford. “The studies are very valuable to help protect our firefighters.”